The second section discusses similarities and differences among countries in order to understand what policy options have been more successful and why. The third section complements this analysis by addressing ten areas where we can learn from previous mistakes. Acemoglu , D.
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Armingeon, K. Bandelj, N. Baumgartner, F. Beckert, J. Blyth, M. Bohle, D. Bunce, V. Busemeyer, M. Cerami, A. Comparative Public Policy. Four-Volume Set. Vanhuysse, eds. De la Porte, C. Dolata, U. Drahokoupil , J.
Ekiert , G. Cambridge, U. Esping-Andersen, G. Data file edition 3. Featherstone, K. Radaelli, eds. Golinowska, S. Goodhart, M. Haggard, S. Hall , P. Hall, P. Lichbachand A. Hamm, P. Inglehart, R. Inglot, T. Klingemann, H. Fuchs, and Jan, Z. Jan, eds. Kornai, J. Myant, M.
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Myant and Drahokoupil, J. North, D. As a response to the severe malnutrition and famine in the immediate postwar period famous nutritionists like Max Rubner, Ralph Kellor or organizations like the Rockefeller Foundation or the League of Nations conducted research in Central Europe, seeking knowledge on the physiological basis of nutrition. Nutritional science often led to straight criticism of international politics. While only underfed and suffering children were meant to participate, they were required to appear at the train station in an impeccable condition.
Activities such as lying on the beach, taking sunbaths, and swimming in the sea or everyday practices of physical hygiene, including hair brushing and washing were documented. Doctors and nurses were always part of these holidays to supervise the children. Texts about nutrition, health provisions, hygiene, clothing, living conditions, and environmental issues accompany most of the images.
The stay with the foster parents was not supposed to be interrupted by any contact with the birth families or other unwanted guests. Some newspaper sources yet indicate some serious troubles with the accommodation and feeding of the foster children after their arrival to the Adriatic seashore. Much emphasis was placed on physical exercise and hygiene.
Correspondence of the Kaiser Karl Wohlfahrtswerk indicates that Kaiser Karl had hoped to strengthen the bonds between the increasingly disconnected crown lands as well as strengthening the severely afflicted monarchy. The suffering child became a handy tool to push for intra-imperial exchanges.
Vadnay remembers the inherent, though still friendly, competition between the temporary foster families:. All of the small Germans who arrived here pale, meager, anemic, and sick, gained kilos, regained a healthy complexion, and became exhilarated and happy from the Hungarian bread, the Hungarian air, and the Hungarian kindness of the heart. After the new borders had been decided upon at the Paris Peace Treaty, one-third of ethnic Hungarians found themselves outside the political borders of the Hungarian state.
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Yet, the self-reflection concerning the failure of the public and private welfare organization to provide the needed aid for children quickly found various public outlets. Particularly after the war had ended, the everyday life of children was closely documented in national and international journals and newspapers.
Their physical state prior to the examination was important. While the mother closes her eyes as she gives her child away, the child is depicted with open arms.
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Their being is that much determined by the lack of food, that a life together appears impossible and the international savior comes into play. Although Hungary had been an enemy during the war, international relief was provided once the Soviet Republic had come to an end in the summer of The deterioration of the human soul and body touches me as a pathetic canvas, irrespective of nationality, race, or environment. We had to acquaint the foreign countries, which were seeking to provide help, with our projects, institutes and institutions.
We also had to draw the attention of the foreign countries to the sad conditions in Hungary. Jebb, I implore you to use all your influence and help me to get this money. Vajkai, and even invited her to study and to report on the situation of British child relief. She became a local authority on the implementation of international relief in Hungary, and was regularly praised for her accomplishments in Budapest. Strengthening the local relief organizations had been developing into a new strategy of child philanthropists as well as politicians.
In addition, temporary housing and education were also provided.
Sometimes, families who had profited from the relief activities wrote personal thanking letters to SCF or to Mrs. Eglantyne Jebb herself. In one of these letters, a family named Horak identified itself as having suffered greatly from the war, saying it had only been rescued through the funding and housing of the Save the Children Fund :. May you be as happy as you have made us. From onwards, international child relief agencies, in cooperation with national relief agencies, sent around Placing poor Hungarian children into better-off foster families abroad was perceived as a sensible act of relieving their suffering.
But apparently equally important seems to have been its effect on the advancement of international tourism as well as on the national economic situation in Hungary of the time. Thus, the option to send children on a summer vacation at the seashore or to the mountains in Transylvania had ceased to exist. Therefore, international child transports offered a good, and also economically attractive, alternative, as the state institutions found themselves in a precarious financial situation and were thus very badly equipped.
Making use of the international relief and help allowed them to overcome these most dramatic years of post-war distress. The children served as a means for a personal rapprochement between the former enemy populations. In order that the children could be allocated to foster families, the National Child Protection League selected the children and the foster families. The children arrived by train and were welcomed by and integrated into the foster families. Placing four national representatives of this child relief endeavor together, the picture captures the internationalist character of the post-war child transports.
The image presents, on the left side, a typical Dutch farmer woman; next to her, possibly a Swedish foster mother; then a British gentleman in a checkered suit and cap with a pipe; and on the right, a Swiss foster mother. Each foster parent drags away four to five children between the ages of four and seven.
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The children are thin but well dressed, and they carry their own luggage. While the four foster parents drag the children in various directions, indicating the broad international character of the action, the children appear as passive objects. They sometimes resulted in the long-term placement of Hungarian children in foster families.
The greater the economic cleavage between the birth family and the foster family, the more likely it became that children would not return home. This resulted in the loss of an unknown number of Hungarian children to foreign countries. A number of such cases can still be uncovered through personal letters between the National Child Protection League and the involved families. A letter by the Hungarian Secret Counselor from June 1, , to the Hungarian Tax Office documents the individual case of two children who had remained abroad for twenty years.
Orphans and semi-orphans were prime targets of the endeavor. However, he has to join the transports. In a letter to Eglantyne Jebb from , Irlet outlined his own private motivation. As the transports were largely funded through the SCF , it is not astonishing that most of the SCF reports about the transports praised the success of the endeavor.
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One letter, addressed to Mrs. Vajkai, tells the story of a foster boy from an orphanage:. The adopter […] continued to subscribe into this year hoping the same boy would benefit; but it was found necessary after June to assign him a Viennese child instead. He is rather sad about it and anxious to keep up relations with Lajos Virag but has failed to get an answer to a letter he wrote.
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