Found in Dongsanzhao Village in Nanhe County, the epitaph, which is believed to have been made during the reign of Emperor Chongzhen, has a history of years, according to the county's publicity department. The cuboid is 80 cm tall, 80 cm wide and 15 cm thick, with an inscription of 2, characters. It records the contributions made by the tomb owner Bai Chushao, who was from a well-known local family and became a senior official after passing the imperial examination.
It provides important historical materials for the study of the Ming Dynasty," said Lan Jianhui, an expert on culture and history.
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In , when the head of a wanhu office rose in rebellion, the central government of the Yuan Dynasty dispatched the prince into Tibet at the head of his army to put it down. The central government of the Yuan Dynasty sent officials into Tibet to set up post stations, whose size varied according to the local population, topography and resources.
These post stations were linked up in a communication line extending from Tibet up to Dadu present-day Beijing. The central government of the Yuan Dynasty also dispatched officials into Tibet to conduct censuses, establish the number of corvee laborers in areas under various wanhu offices and decide the number of corvee laborers, provisions and animal transport the areas along the post route had to supply.
Such censuses were conducted three times in Tibet, in , and The central government of the Ming Dynasty retained most of the titles and ranks of official positions instituted during the Yuan Dynasty. Equivalent to provincial-level military organs, they operated under the Shaanxi Itinerant High Commandery and, at the same time, handled civil administration.
Leading officials of these organs were all appointed by the central government. The third emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Chengzu reigned saw the advantage of combined Buddhist religious and political power in Tibet and rivalry between sects occupying different areas. So he conferred honorific titles on religious leaders in various parts of Tibet such as the "prince of Dharma," "prince" and "national master in Tantrism. Only then could the new prince assume his role. According to the stipulations of the Ming court, the prince had to dispatch his envoy or come in person to the capital to participate in the New Year's Day celebration each year and present his memorial of congratulation and tribute.
The Ming court had detailed stipulations that limited the dates for presenting tributes, the number of personnel allowed in the capital, the route to be taken, and also provisions to be supplied by local authorities along the route.
The tablets wishing longevity to the emperors before which the prayers had to prostrate themselves are still kept in some of the monasteries in Tibet. The central government of the Ming Dynasty showed him special favor by allowing him to pay tribute. In he was granted the title of Dorjichang or Vajradhara Dalai Lama. Any official of the Tibetan local government who offended the law was punished by the central government. When the Qing Dynasty replaced the Ming Dynasty in , it further strengthened administration over Tibet. In and , the Qing emperors granted honorific titles to the 5th Dalai Lama and the 5th Bainqen Lama, henceforth officially establishing the titles of the Dalai Lama and the Bainqen Erdeni and their political and religious status in Tibet.
In , Qing government troops were sent into Tibet to dispel the Zungar forces which had been entrenched in Lhasa for three years, and set out to reform Tibet's administrative system. The Qing emperor made a young Living Buddha of the Xikang area the 7th Dalai Lama and had him escorted into Tibet, and appointed four Tibetan officials renowned for meritorious service "Galoins" to handle Tibet's political affairs. From , High commissioners were stationed in Tibet to supervise local administration on behalf of the central authorities.
Officials were also assigned about this time to survey and delimit the borders between Tibet i. Xizang and Sichuan, Yunnan and Qinghai.
Ch'ing dynasty inscriptions at Lhasa : Richardson :
In order to perfect Tibet's administrative organizations, the Qing Dynasty on many occasions enacted "regulations" to rectify and reform old systems and establish new ones. Their major purport was:. The Qing government holds the power to confirm the reincarnation of all deceased high Living Buddhas of Tibet including the Dalai Lama and the Bainqen Erdeni.
When the reincarnate boy has been found, his name will be written on a lot, which shall be put into a gold urn bestowed by the central government. The high commissioners will bring together appropriate high-ranking Living Buddhas to determine the authenticity of the reincarnate boy by drawing lots from the gold urn. Both the gold urn and lots are still preserved in Lhasa. The tonsure of the incarnate Living Buddha, his religious name, the choice of the master to initiate him into monkhood and his sutra instructor all have to be reported by the high commissioners to the imperial court for examination and approval.
Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720)
The central government will send high officials to supervise in person the installation ceremony for the new Dalai Lama and the new Bainqen Erdeni and also the ceremony for their taking over reins of government at coming of age. The high commissioners will supervise the handling of Tibetan affairs on behalf of the central government, enjoying the equal standing with the Dalai Lama and the Bainqen Erdeni. All the Galoins and those below them are subordinates. The ranks and numbers of Tibetan civil and military officials, and procedures for their promotion and replacement are stipulated.
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The highest-Ranking Tibetan officials including four Galoins and six Deboins are to be appointed by the central government. The annual salaries of the Galoins and Deboins will be paid by the central government.
A regular army of 3, will be organized in Tibet. The regulations stipulate ranks and numbers of military officials, the source of troop pay and provisions, plus weaponry and places where troops are to be stationed. In addition, some 1, troops will be transferred from the interior to stations in various localities of Tibet. Both Tibetan and Han troops are put under the command of officers sent by the central government. A mint will be set up in Tibet along the lines established by those in the interior to make official money for circulation. On the two sides of the silver coinage the words "Qianlong Treasure" will be cast in the Han Chinese and Tibetan.
The annual financial receipts and expenditures of the Dalai Lama and the Bainqen Erdeni will be subject to checking by the high commissioners. Tibet's taxation and corvee labor will be born by the whole society on an equal footing. The research draws on an unparalleled amount of archival sources as well as up-to-date findings of original research projects. In the meanwhile, some experiences of other Chinese historical cities are also included for comparison with the preservation of the old Lhasa city.
They can be used as a reference for scholars and students who are interested in the field of historical and cultural preservation in Chinese urban planning and construction. The book can also be useful to tourists or the people who are interested in the cultural and religious history of Tibet. Barkhor Historical Area Evolution of Lhasa city geographical history of Lhasa old Lhasa city preservation of cultural heritage preservation of old cities.
Related Ching dynasty inscriptions at Lhasa
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